Amazing images of Tokyo before it was a city

The Japanese capital wasn't always the bustling metropolis it is today...

Leanna Garfield
Business Insider
Monday 22 January 2018 15:12
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Before Tokyo matured into the gleaming, dense city it is today, it was a small fishing village called Edo.

Now home to over 13 million people, the Japanese capital has changed dramatically since its beginnings in the 12th century.

These maps, woodcuts, and old-time photographs show the journey of Tokyo from small village to today.

 

Tokyo was originally known as Edo, which means "estuary." In the late 12th century, Edo was fortified by the Edo clan, which built a castle and military capital (pictured below). Some of the estate's moats and walls still survive to this day.

 

Wikipedia Commons

 

By the 1630s, Edo had a population of 150,000.

 

Wikipedia Commons

 

And over the next century, the small fishing village grew into the largest metropolis in the world, with a million residents by 1721.

 

NYPL

 

In the 18th century, Edo became the capital of Japan. During this time, it enjoyed a long period of peace, called the Pax Tokugawa.

 

NYPL

 

But this ended when American Commodore Matthew C. Perry docked in Edo in 1853. Perry negotiated the opening of two main ports with the Japanese government, leading to severe inflation and subsequent protests from residents.

 

Wikipedia Commons

 

Japan's last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu, surrendered power to Emperor Meiji in 1868. The emperor travelled to Tokyo a year later, and established Edo Castle as the imperial palace.

 

Felice Beato/NYPL

 

In January 1873, Japan's Grand Council issued a notice for the establishment of public parks, noting that "in prefectures including Tokyo, Osaka, and Kyoto, there are places of historic interest, scenic beauty, and recreation and relaxation where people can visit and enjoy themselves."

 

NYPL

 

To this day, water lilies still cover a substantial part of Shinobazu Pond, located near the city centre. Here it is in a 1910 photo:

 

NYPL

 

Tokyo City, which was already Japan's main cultural and commercial centre, was officially established 1889.

 

Wikipedia Commons

 

It started industrialising.

 

NYPL

 

In its masterplan, the city prioritised access to major railway stations rather than large highways. This encouraged density.

 

Old Tokyo

 

Tokyo also developed a network of canals in the early 20th century. Boats would distribute goods to the wharfs, warehouses, and factories on the canals' edges.

 

NYPL

 

Tokyo's first tram lines opened in 1903, and the city's main train station - which serves high-speed rails today - was completed in 1914. The top photo shows the station under construction, while the bottom photo shows it soon after its opening.

 

Japan Times/Tokyo Station Hotel

 

Tokyo's population kept climbing. By 1920, it reached 3.7 million.

 

NYPL

 

Two major catastrophes hit Tokyo in the early-to-mid 20th century: the 1923 Great Kanto earthquake and World War II.

 

Wikipedia Commons

 

Despite the extreme loss in life and infrastructure, the city slowly recovered over the next few decades. Here is a street in Tokyo's theatre district in 1930...

 

Getty

 

...and the Asakusa temple, also in 1930.

 

NYPL

 

Today, Tokyo is still the world's largest city, with a population of approximately 13.5 million.

 

Moyan Brenn/Flickr

 

Now a bustling metropolis with some of the world's tallest towers, Tokyo has come a long way since its humble beginnings as a seaside village.

 

Shutterstock

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