News A statue depicting a Neanderthal. Scientists have discovered that Neanderthal genes passed on to modern humans could affect our likelihood of developing auto-immune diseases.

The likelihood of people developing diseases including type two diabetes and Crohn's could be affected by genes inherited from Neanderthals

African connection

In the big question of where man came from, there are still no easy answers. Despite DNA evidence, the debate continues about whether all modern humans originated in Africa.

How modern man won the biggest battle for his life

Despite evidence to the contrary in rugby clubs and City wine bars, modern humans are not descended from Neanderthal Man, according to scientific research published today.

How Neanderthal Man lost the great evolutionary race

Despite evidence to the contrary in rugby clubs and City wine bars, modern humans are not descended from Neanderthal Man, according to scientific research published today.

Dance: By Force of Fantasy / V-TOL The Place, London

You don't often see a dance piece that would work on the radio, but the characters in Mark Murphy's By Force of Fantasy are brought to life by a series of interior monologues written by Gary Young which almost have a life of their own. Young's writing reveals the (exclusively sexual) fantasy lives of the five characters lined up stage-front: a promiscuous man; a woman addicted to pornography; a lonely woman and a married couple in search of sexual thrills. Their obsessions are brought to life by the voices of Louis Dempsey and the superb Tamsin Grieg - familiar to Archers fans as Debbie Aldridge.

Pseudo-cartoons are no laughing matter

The other day on Radio 4 the comedian Graham Norton was quoting from an old Punch cartoon which had tickled his fancy enough to stick in his mind. It was a drawing of a psychiatrist looking down at a patient on a couch and saying to him: "That's not much of an inferiority complex, is it?" It has stuck in my mind as well, not because it's quite funny but because it is a cartoon of a type that doesn't seem to be done much any more, the cartoon with witty dialogue, or with a witty twist on a situation. One of the very best examples of the latter was the JW Taylor cartoon showing a late 18th century publisher talking to a young lady novelist, saying: "We like the plot, Miss Austen, but all this effing and blinding will have to go."

Strange case of Charlie's ant

THE ORIGINS OF VIRTUE by Matt Ridley Viking pounds 20

Earplugs optional

CLASSICAL MUSIC Bruckner: Ninth Symphony; Te Deum London Philharmonic / Haitink RFH, SBC, London

Scotland welcomes the new Stone age

Neal Ascherson hears mutters of nationalism as the `Destiny Stane' comes home

The big birth lie

Revelations; The time: 17 November 1990 The place: St George's Hospital, Sydney The woman: Kathy Lette, novelist

Module behaviour

How does the mind work? Colin Tudge explains The Pre-History of the Mind by Steven Mithen, Thames & Hudson, pounds 16.95 The Pre-History of Sex by Tim Taylor, Fourth Estate, pounds 18.99

IT'S ALL IN THE MIND

Science: Steven Mithen says the way to understand how the human mind has developed is for psychologists and archaeologists to finally join forces. Marek Kohn investigates

Leading article:Roots on Ramsey Street

Our early ancestors had terrible travel agents. Had Judith Chalmers and her pals been around they would have swiftly advised Homo erectus to try the delights of the Med rather than the wilds of the Australian outback. Yet newly discovered cave paintings and ancient artefacts suggest that the first human foray out of Africa took place down under after all.

Books: Into the black hole

Michael Arditti enjoys a complex study of memory; Distance by Colin Thubron Heinemann, pounds 15.99

Proms Peter Maxwell Davies: Symphony No 6 RAH, London / R3

New work will frighten your audience, so one lollipop (at the very least) must be in place to reward the patience of the punter should anything offend the ears. At least, so the conventional wisdom goes. Tuesday's Prom, planned, conducted and a large chunk of it composed by Sir Peter Maxwell Davies, served to show what a tired old cliche that is. New music need inspire no fear and may easily outpace any war-horse put there to offer comfort.

Fountain throws up new ideas

Cricketers around the country are throwing in their lot with a baseball coach in order to improve their fielding techniques. Throwing is something that cricketers have all been getting wrong from the stone age. Cricket squares around the shires will be the stage for moves which are more familiar around baseball's diamond.
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