There were boos as the protesters – who wore Just Stop Oil T-shirts – entered the field of play and caused a delay of around two minutes by releasing the powder on the halfway line.
It left a mark on the Twickeham pitch but the match between Saracens and Sale quickly resumed after the protesters were removed from the pitch and arrested.
Sale players Jono Ross and England international Tom Curry assisted stewards as the protesters were led away.
A statement from Twickenham Stadium said: “We can confirm two people have been arrested and this is now a police matter. We would like to thank our stewarding team who acted decisively and swiftly.”
A statement from Just Stop Oil said the men involved in the protest were Dr Patrick Hart, 37, a GP from Bristol, and Sam Johnson, 40, a construction worker from Essex.
“Two Just Stop Oil supporters have disrupted the Gallagher Premiership Rugby final,” the statement read.
“They are demanding a halt to any new licences for oil, gas and coal projects in the UK.”
The protest at Twickenham caused significantly less disruption than Just Stop Oil’s demonstration at the World Snooker Championships last month.
On that occasion, a man tipped orange paint on a table during the match between Robert Milkins and Joe Perry at the Crucible in Sheffield.
A woman was prevented from carrying out a similar stunt on another table after being tackled by quick-thinking referee Olivier Marteel.
Includes reporting from PA
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